Piezoelectric Effect

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The piezoelectric effect, also piezoelectricity or  piezo effect , from the Greek πιέζειν ( piezein , press ) and ἤλεκτρον ( electron ), describes the change in the electric polarization and thus the occurrence of an electrical voltage to solids, when they are elastically deformed ( direct piezoelectric effect ). Conversely, materials deform when an electric voltage is applied ( inverse piezoelectric effect ).

History

The direct piezoelectric effect was discovered in 1880 by French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie[1]. In experiments with tourmaline crystals they found that when subjected to mechanical deformation of crystals on the crystal surface electric charges arise, the amount of which is proportional to the stress. Today are piezo elements usually PZT ceramics (such as lead zirconate titanate ) is used.
  1. Manbachi, A. and Cobbold R.S.C. (2011). "Development and Application of Piezoelectric Materials for Ultrasound Generation and Detection".Ultrasound 19 (4): 187–196. doi:10.1258/ult.2011.011027.